Akeel Bilgrami is the Sidney Morgenbesser Professor of Philosophy at Columbia University. He received a first degree in English Literature from Bombay University and then attended Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, where he received another Bachelor's degree in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago, where he wrote his dissertation, "Meaning as Invariance," on the subject of the indeterminacy of translation and issues concerning realism and linguistic meaning. He joined Columbia in 1985 after spending two years as an Assistant Professor at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Professor Bilgrami has two relatively independent sets of intellectual interests--in the Philosophy of Mind and Language, and in Political Philosophy and Moral Psychology especially as they surface in politics, history, and culture. Professor Bilgrami was the Chairman of the Philosophy Department from 1994-98 and the Director of the Heyman Center for the Humanities at Columbia University from 2004-2011.